UN-ov Visoki povjerenik za izbjeglice najavljuje izdavanje «Raseljenost u svijetu» i upozorava na pogoršanje pitanja globalne raseljenosti

16-12-2012 00:00:00

New York, 31. svibnja (UNHCR) - Visoki povjerenik za izbjeglice, António Guterres, upozorio je kako imamo sve veći masovni priljev raseljenog stanovništva i kako će u nadolazećih 10 godina biti sve više i više izbjeglica i interno raseljenih osoba. Komentirajući izdavanje knjige UNHCR-a, Raseljenost u svijetu: Tražeći solidarnost, Guterres je izjavio kako raseljenost uzrokovana ratnim sukobima ima sve veći broj uzroka: klimatske promjene, rast populacije, urbanizacija, nedostatak hrane i vode i ostalih resursa. Svi ovi faktori međusobno povezani dovode do povećanja nestabilnosti i ratnih sukoba te prisiljavaju ljude na iseljavanje. U svijetu koji postaje sve manji i manji, pronalaženje trajnih rješenja će zahtijevati odlučujuću politiku volju, izjavio je Guterres.

"Svijet stvara takav trend današnjice da u svijetu dolazi do raseljenosti brže nego što se pronalaze rješenja", rekao je Guterres, UN-ov Visoki povjerenik za izbjeglice. "A to znači samo jednu stvar: sve veći broj ljudi zatočenih u egzilu kroz dugi niz godina; oni se ne mogu vratiti kući, lokalno se smjestiti ili preseliti negdje drugdje. Globalna raseljenost je inherentni međunarodni problem i kao takav zahtjeva međunarodna rješenja - i pod tim mislim na politička rješenja."

Raseljenost u svijetu: Tražeći solidarnost detaljno izvještava o promjenama od 2006. godine kada je prethodno izdanje knjige bilo objavljeno. Ovo izdanje iznosi izrazito mračniji pogled: sve su veći izazovi koji vode do raseljavanja, povećane su prijetnje za sigurnost humanitarnih radnika te stoga države moraju jačati međusobnu suradnju. Treba istaknuti kako je novi izazov pojava interne raseljenosti. Od ukupno 43 milijuna ljudi svijeta koji su prisiljeni napustiti svoje domove, interno raseljeni broje 26 milijuna, izbjeglice broje 15 do 16 milijuna te tražitelji azila oko milijun. Otežavajuća okolnost humanitarnim radnicima jest ta da pomaganje interno raseljenim osoba postaje skupo i opasno. U zemljama poput Somalije, Afganistana, Jemena ili Iraka, pružanje pomoći za raseljene populacije znači rad u sredinama gdje otežan pristup, sukob i kriminal predstavljaju smrtnu opasnost.

Raseljenost u svijetu: Tražeći solidarnost sagledava sve ove probleme kao i suradnju između država. "Prostor za humanitarno djelovanje se smanjuje točno u trenutku kada je potreba za humanitarnom pomoći sve veća i veća. Pritisci na međunarodni sustav zaštite vidno rastu. U nekim razvijenim zemljama, posebice smo svjedoci takvih razmišljanja kojima je cilj prebacivanje odgovornosti i suosjećanja negdje drugdje. U svijetu u kojem društva postaju multi-kulturna i multi-etnička, važno je promicati vrijednosti tolerancije i boriti se protiv ikakvih oblika ksenofobije ", rekao je Guterres.

Nekoliko poglavlja u knjizi se tiču novih izazova, uključujući rastući broj urbanih izbjeglica, raseljenosti zbog klimatskih promjena i prirodnih katastrofa. Također je naglašeno kako je godišnje više ljudi raseljeno zbog prirodnih katastrofa nego zbog ratnih sukoba. Upravo zbog toga stoji upozorenje o propustu u međunarodnoj zaštiti kada su u pitanju ljudi koji su pobjegli preko granica svoje zemlje zbog klimatskih promjena ili prirodnih katastrofa. Oni nisu prepoznati kao izbjeglice u međunarodnom pravu.

Knjiga opisuje kako su UNHCR i njegovi partneri razvili mnoge inovativne prakse u odgovoru na rastuće izazove raseljenosti. U knjizi se također navodi borba UNHCR-a pri pokušaju da osigura poštivanje obveza država koje proizlaze iz običajnog međunarodnog prava, odnosno usklađenost država potpisnicama s Konvencijom o statusu izbjeglica iz 1951. i Protokolom iz 1967. godine.

Knjiga također sagledava probleme osoba bez državljanstva kojih je prema procjenama 12 milijuna - osoba koje nemaju državljanstvo niti jedne države i stoga se nalaze u procjepu u odnosu na pravnu regulativu i pravo o ljudskim pravima.
Osamdeset posto današnjih izbjeglica živi u razvijenom svijetu. Veća međunarodna solidarnost je potrebna kako bi se riješio ovaj izazov, zaključeno je u zadnjem poglavlju knjige. To obuhvaća osiguravanje što više mogućnosti za preseljenje izbjeglica u razvijenom svijetu, fokusirajući se na bolji razvitak razvojnih programa kako bi se osigurao dobrovoljni povratak ili lokalna integracija te podrška lokalnih zajednica. Potrebno je ponovno ispitati podjelu odgovornosti u cijelom ciklusu zaštite izbjeglica počevši od prevencije sukoba do njihovih rješenja.

NEW YORK, May 31 (UNHCR) - The head of the UN refugee agency, António Guterres, warned today that factors causing mass population flight are growing and that the coming 10 years will see more and more people on the move becoming refugees or internally displaced persons.

In comments marking the launch of a flagship UNHCR book, The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity, Guterres said displacement from conflict is becoming compounded by a combination of causes; including climate change, population growth, urbanization, food insecurity, water scarcity and resource competition. All these factors are interacting with each other increasing instability and conflict and forcing people to move. In a world that is becoming smaller and smaller, finding solutions, he said, will need determined international political will.

"The world is creating displacement faster than it is producing solutions," said Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "And this means one thing only: More people trapped in exile over many years, unable to return home, to settle locally, or to move elsewhere. Global displacement is an inherently international problem, and as such needs international solutions - and by this I mainly mean political solutions."

The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity details these and other changes to the environment for the displaced since 2006 when the previous edition of the book was published. It presents a decidedly gloomier outlook: larger and more complex displacement challenges, increased threats to the safety of humanitarian workers, and states needing to strengthen their cooperation.

Notable among these changes is the emergence of internal displacement as a dominant challenge. Today most of the world's 43 million forced to flee their homes are not refugees but people who are displaced within their own countries. Globally, some 26 million people fall into this category, compared to around 15-16 million refugees and a further million asylum seekers. For humanitarian workers, an ensuing implication is that helping the displaced is becoming more costly and dangerous. In countries such as Somalia, Afghanistan, Yemen, or Iraq, getting help to internally displaced populations means working in environments where access is difficult and conflict or criminality can present deadly risk.

The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity looks at these problems and the state of cooperation among countries. "The space for humanitarian intervention is shrinking exactly when the need for humanitarian help is increasing. Pressures on the international protection system are clearly growing. In some industrialized countries in particular we see fortress mentalities that serve only to shift responsibility and compassion elsewhere. In a world where societies are becoming multi-cultural and multi-ethnic, it is essential to promote the values of tolerance and to fight the manifestation of xenophobia," said Guterres.

Several chapters in the book look at emerging challenges, including the growing numbers of urban refugees, and displacement from climate change and natural disasters. It notes that more people are already displaced annually by natural disasters than by conflict. And it carries a warning about gaps in international protection when it comes to people who flee across borders to escape climate change impacts or natural disasters. They are not recognized as refugees under international law.

The book describes how UNHCR and its partners have developed many innovative practices in response to evolving displacement challenges. However, it also elaborates the struggle UNHCR often faces in promoting state compliance with customary international law as it relates to the forcibly displaced, or the compliance of signatory states to their obligations under the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. It also looks at the problems of the world's estimated 12 million stateless people - without citizenship of any state, they are often trapped in legal and human rights limbo.

Eighty per cent of today's refugees live in the developing world. Greater international solidarity is needed to address this challenge, the book concludes in its last chapter. This encompasses providing more resettlement opportunities for refugees in the industrialised world, focusing development cooperation projects to foster sustainable voluntary return or local integration, and supporting host communities. A new deal in burden and responsibility sharing is needed in the whole cycle of refugee protection from prevention of conflict to solutions.

UN High commissioner for refugees launches state of the world's refugees

16-12-2012 00:00:00

NEW YORK, May 31 (UNHCR) - The head of the UN refugee agency, António Guterres, warned today that factors causing mass population flight are growing and that the coming 10 years will see more and more people on the move becoming refugees or internally displaced persons.

In comments marking the launch of a flagship UNHCR book, The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity, Guterres said displacement from conflict is becoming compounded by a combination of causes; including climate change, population growth, urbanization, food insecurity, water scarcity and resource competition. All these factors are interacting with each other increasing instability and conflict and forcing people to move. In a world that is becoming smaller and smaller, finding solutions, he said, will need determined international political will.

"The world is creating displacement faster than it is producing solutions," said Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "And this means one thing only: More people trapped in exile over many years, unable to return home, to settle locally, or to move elsewhere. Global displacement is an inherently international problem, and as such needs international solutions - and by this I mainly mean political solutions."

The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity details these and other changes to the environment for the displaced since 2006 when the previous edition of the book was published. It presents a decidedly gloomier outlook: larger and more complex displacement challenges, increased threats to the safety of humanitarian workers, and states needing to strengthen their cooperation.

Notable among these changes is the emergence of internal displacement as a dominant challenge. Today most of the world's 43 million forced to flee their homes are not refugees but people who are displaced within their own countries. Globally, some 26 million people fall into this category, compared to around 15-16 million refugees and a further million asylum seekers. For humanitarian workers, an ensuing implication is that helping the displaced is becoming more costly and dangerous. In countries such as Somalia, Afghanistan, Yemen, or Iraq, getting help to internally displaced populations means working in environments where access is difficult and conflict or criminality can present deadly risk.

The State of the World's Refugees: In Search of Solidarity looks at these problems and the state of cooperation among countries. "The space for humanitarian intervention is shrinking exactly when the need for humanitarian help is increasing. Pressures on the international protection system are clearly growing. In some industrialized countries in particular we see fortress mentalities that serve only to shift responsibility and compassion elsewhere. In a world where societies are becoming multi-cultural and multi-ethnic, it is essential to promote the values of tolerance and to fight the manifestation of xenophobia," said Guterres.

Several chapters in the book look at emerging challenges, including the growing numbers of urban refugees, and displacement from climate change and natural disasters. It notes that more people are already displaced annually by natural disasters than by conflict. And it carries a warning about gaps in international protection when it comes to people who flee across borders to escape climate change impacts or natural disasters. They are not recognized as refugees under international law.

The book describes how UNHCR and its partners have developed many innovative practices in response to evolving displacement challenges. However, it also elaborates the struggle UNHCR often faces in promoting state compliance with customary international law as it relates to the forcibly displaced, or the compliance of signatory states to their obligations under the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. It also looks at the problems of the world's estimated 12 million stateless people - without citizenship of any state, they are often trapped in legal and human rights limbo.

Eighty per cent of today's refugees live in the developing world. Greater international solidarity is needed to address this challenge, the book concludes in its last chapter. This encompasses providing more resettlement opportunities for refugees in the industrialised world, focusing development cooperation projects to foster sustainable voluntary return or local integration, and supporting host communities. A new deal in burden and responsibility sharing is needed in the whole cycle of refugee protection from prevention of conflict to solutions.

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